If you are viewing this page from other than my hosting country, you may be getting benefitted from a submarine communication cable. Ninety-nine percent of global internet users are dependent on the undersea cable capacity, such as the telecom sector, mobile operators, research institutes, Govt. sectors, etc.
Why is it called Submarine Cable?
The ship which is using for cabling under the sea or ocean is called Submarine, Ex. René Descartes, operated by Orange Marine. A Submarine cable is a fiber optic cable used under the sea to connect continents or countries for the internet. Submarine cables are connected all over the world except Antarctica. As we know, water covers 70 percent of the Earth’s surface. So, if we want to connect two or more continents with the Internet, we must go through underseas. Submarine cable communication is not a new technology.
In this section, we will discuss undersea communication cables that run underneath the oceans and transfer data everywhere in the blink of an eye. There is 99 percent of international communication relies on fiber optic cables, most of these fiber optic cables are lying underwater. All of our communication travels through these cables whether it is telephone or internet connections. It has an old history where telegraphic signals passed through the undersea cable. At present, around 426 undersea cables are under operation worldwide, and over 1.4 million Kilometers are spanning these undersea cables. The longest undersea cable name is SEA-ME-WE3 (South-East Asia-Middle East-Western Europe 3). Every year number of Submarine Communication cables is increasing. The latest “MAREA” cable can carry data up to 225 terabits per second.
Satellite internet vs. Fiber Optic Cable
Satellites are an excellent option for distributing data from one source to multiple locations and where no undersea cable can reach or not yet wired with fiber. Satellite internet has some limitations due to higher ping rates and costlier than submarine fiber optic cables. Data are traveling along with the undersea cables roughly Ninety-seven percent speed of the light. In the long run, Fiber optic cable is much cheaper than satellite Internet. Submarine cables can transfer terabits per second, but satellite internet can provide only 1,000 megabits per second.
Key Players of Submarine Communication cables
Over 50 percent of the world’s submarine communication cables are owned by Google, Facebook, Amazon, and Microsoft. Google is the largest investor and owner of the submarine communication cable network globally. Other than these private sectors, Government sectors are also investing in this mega project.
Inside the Submarine Communication Cable
Submarine fiber optic cables are mainly two types has used. Unrepeatered and others are repeatered. In a short distance, unrepeatered wires are using, and it is cheaper than repeaters cables—today’s undersea cables using fiber optic technology. Fiber optic filaments are as thin as the diameter of human hair. Fibers are sheath with multiple layers of insulation and protection.
Maintenance of Submarine Cables
Numbers of submarine cables are decommissioned due to damage every year. Cable replacing does not affect the smoothness of internet service because the traffic is spread through multiple cables network capacity. Many factors cause damage. Most of the damages caused by ships dragging anchors, fishing vessels; after that, sharks bite the undersea cables, undersea rock slides, underwater earthquakes. Every year is educating the techies who are engaged with marine industries for the protection of these cables. Submarine communication cables are laid directly on the ocean floor, but cables are buried under the sea bed to take protection near the shore. That’s why we do not see any cable near the sea beach. When cables are commissioned in the ocean, some paths are avoided, like fishing zones, anchoring areas, or faulty zones.
Facebook is launching their satellites, and Google already has internet drones because they do not trust only on submarine cable communication. They are continuously seeking alternative options, but at the same time, they are investing a lot of money on undersea cables too.